RDS Standard Abbreviations

The following list of standard abbreviations may be used without further definition within the text (not the abstract) of your manuscript considered for publication in the RDS. See information for manuscript preparation for further details on the use of abbreviations within abstracts. For a printable version of this list use the 'Print page' link at the end of this page or download the PDF version.

Å: angstrom (10-10 m)
Ab: antibody
Ag: antigen
ADP: adenosine diphosphate
ADPase: adenosine diphosphatase
AIDS: acquired immunodeficiancy syndrome
AMP: adenosine monophosphate
APC: antigen presenting cell
ATP: adenosine triphosphate
ATPase: adenosine triphosphatase

BMI: body mass index
bp: base pair(s)
BSA: bovine serum albumin

°C: degrees Celsius
cAMP: cyclic adenosine monophosphate
cal: calorie(s)
CD: cluster of differentiation (in combination with numbers, CD1, CD4 etc.)
cDNA: complementary DNA
CFA: complete Freund's adjuvant
Ci: curie(s)
CI: confidence interval
CNS: central nervous system
CoA: coenzyme A
Con A: concanavalin A
cpm: counts per minute
cRNA: complementary RNA
CSF: colony-stimulating factor
CTLA: cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen

Δ: delta (change in)
Da: dalton(s)
DEAE: diethylaminoethyl
DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium
DMSO: dimethylsulfoxide
DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid
DNase: deoxyribonuclease
DNP: dinitrophenyl
dpm: disintegrations per minute
DTT: dithiothreitol

EDTA: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
EGF: epidermal growth factor
EGTA: ethyleneglycol-bis (β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid
ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
ELISPOT: enzyme-linked immunospot

°F: degrees Fahrenheit
FAGS: flourescence-activated cell sorter (TM of Becton Dickinson and Co.)
Fas: FS7-associated cell surface antigen
FBS: fetal bovine serum
Fc: crystallizable fragment
FCS: fetal calf serum
FFA: free fatty acid
FGF: fibroblast growth factor
FITC: flourescein isothiocyanate
FMLP: formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine
ft: foot, feet

g: gram(s)
GAD: glutamic acid decarboxylase
GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
G-CSF: granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
GM-CSF: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

h: hour(s)
HbA1: glycosylated hemoglobin A1
HBSS: Hank's balanced salt solution
HDL: high density lipoprotein
H&E: hematoxylin and eosin stain
HEPES: N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethane sulfonic acid
HGF: hepatocyte growth factor
HIV: human immunodeficiency virus
HLA: human leucocyte antigen
HPLC: high-performance liquid chromatography

i.a.: intra-aterial
IAA: insulin autoantibody
IA: insulinoma-associated antigen
IC50: inhibitory concentration of 50%
ICA: islet cell antibody
ICAM: intercellular adhesion molecule
ID50: infective dose of 50%
IDDM: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
IFN: interferon
Ig: immunglobulin (also IgE, IgG etc.)
IGF: insulin-like growth factor
IL: interleukin (IL-10, IL-12 etc.)
i.m.: intramuscular
in.: inch(es)
IR: insulin receptor
IU: international unit
i.v.: intravenous

°K: degree(s) Kelvin
kb: kilobase(s)
kcal: kilocalorie(s)
Ka: association constant
Kd: dissociation constant
Ki: inhibition constant
Km: Michaelis constant
kDa: kilodalton(s)

           l: liter(s)
LD50: 50% lethal dose
LDL: low-density lipoprotein
LIF: leukemia inhibitory factor
LPS: lipopolysccharide

m: meter(s)
μm: micrometer(s)
μl: microliter(s)
ml: milliliter(s)
M-CSF: macrophage colony-stimulating factor
MEM: minimum essential medium
MHC: major histocompatibility complex
min: minute(s)
mmHg: millimeters of mercury
mo: month(s)
MODY: maturity-onset diabetes of the young
mol: mole(s)
mol wt: molecular weigth
MOPS: morpholino propane sulfonic acid
Mr: relative molecular mass
mRNA: messenger ribonucleic acid

n: number of subjects in a study group
NAD: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
NADH: reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
NADP: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
NADPH: reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
NF-κB: nuclear factor κB
NF: nuclear factor
NIDDM: non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
NIH: National Institute of Health (Bethesda, Maryland, USA)
NK cell: natural killer cell
NOD: non-obese diabetic (mouse)
no.: number

P: probability
PAGE: polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
PCR: polymerase chain reaction
PDGF: platelet-derived growth factor
PIPES: piperazine-N,N'-bis(2-ethane sulfonic acid)
PMA: phorbol myristate acetate
PMSF: phenylmethylsulfonyl floride

RANTES: regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted
RFLP: restriction fragment length polymorphism
RIA: radioimmunoassay
RNA: ribonucleic acid
RNase: ribonuclease
rpm: revolutions per minute
rRNA: ribosomal ribonucleic acid
RT-PCR: reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

s.c.: subcutaneous
s: second(s)
SD: standard deviation
SDS: sodium dodecyl sulfate
SE: standard error
SEM: standard error of mean
SSC: standard saline citrate
STAT: signal transducer and activator of transcription

t1/2: half-life
T1D: type 1 diabetes
T2D: type 2 diabetes
TBS: Tris-buffered saline
TCR: T cell receptor
TGF: transforming growth factor
Th cell: T helper cell
TLC: thin layer chromatography
TNF: tumor necrosis factor
Tris: Tris(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane
tRNA: transfer ribonucleic acid

U: unit(s)
UV: ultraviolet

V: volt(s)
VCAM: vascular cell adhesion molecule
vol: volume
vs: versus

W: watt(s)
wk: week
wt: weigth

yr: year(s)