Original Data

Rev Diabet Stud, 2008, 5(2):95-101 DOI 10.1900/RDS.2008.5.95

Comparison of Metformin and Insulin in the Treatment of Gestational Diabetes: A Retrospective, Case-Control Study

Kristiina Tertti1, Ulla Ekblad1, Tero Vahlberg2, Tapani Rönnemaa3

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Turku University Central Hospital, Turku, Finland
2Department of Biostatistics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
3Department of Internal Medicine, Turku University Central Hospital, Turku, Finland
Address correspondence to: Kristiina Tertti, e-mail: kristiina.tertti@tyks.fi


OBJECTIVES: Limited data are available on metformin therapy in gestational diabetes. The aim of the study was to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) treated with metformin with those treated with insulin, or diet alone. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study that included 45 GDM women treated with metformin, 45 women treated with insulin and 83 women with no pharmacological treatment. Subjects were matched for pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and age. RESULTS: There were no differences between the metformin-treated group and the other two groups in terms of maternal outcomes (total weight gain during pregnancy or after the diagnosis of GDM, pre-pregnancy hypertension, pregnancy induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia etc.). In the diagnostic 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test, glucose values were slightly, but significantly, higher in the insulin group than in the metformin group (p < 0.003). Eighteen percent of mothers treated with metformin needed supplementary insulin therapy. No differences between the metformin-treated group and the other two groups (insulin, diet only) were observed in relation to mean birth weights, prevalence of macrosomia, or gestational weeks at delivery. The incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia was higher in the insulin group than in the metformin group (p = 0.03). There were no differences between the groups in other neonatal outcomes (small for gestational age, Apgar scores, umbilical artery pH or base excess, etc.). CONCLUSION: These retrospective data suggest that metformin is effective in controlling gestational diabetes and is not associated with a higher risk of maternal or neonatal complications compared with insulin.

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Rev Diabet Stud, 2008, 5(2):102-109 DOI 10.1900/RDS.2008.5.102

Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Microalbuminuria in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Trial

Mahmoud Parham, Massoud Amini, Ashraf Aminorroaya, Esfandiar Heidarian

Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Sedigheh Tahereh Research Complex, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
Address correspondence to: Ashraf Aminorroaya, e-mail: aminorroaya@med.mui.ac.ir


OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress can contribute to microvascular complications in diabetes. A decisive event associated with this condition may be the decrease in the synthesis of zinc-containing antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. This consideration led us to investigate the effect of zinc supplementation versus placebo on microalbuminuria in diabetic patients in a randomized double blind clinical trial. METHODS: Fifty diabetic patients with microalbuminuria were enrolled. Fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, lipid profiles, plasma zinc levels and random urine for albumin and creatinine were measured. Patients randomly received 30 mg elemental zinc (group 1) or placebo (group 2) for 3 months. After a 4 week wash-out period, the groups were crossed over (i.e. the zinc group were given placebo, and the placebo group were given zinc) and the protocol was repeated. RESULTS: From an initial number of 50 selected patients (25 in each of two groups), 39 patients (21 in group 1 and 18 in group 2) completed the study. In group 1, after zinc supplementation, urinary albumin excretion decreased significantly from 86.5 ± 57 to 75 ± 71 mg/g (p = 0.01). After placebo, patients in group 1 showed no significant reduction in microalbuminuria (85 ± 72 mg/g to 83 ± 63 mg/g creatinine). In group 2, no change in albumin excretion was observed after placebo treatment (90.5 ± 63 mg/g to 90 ± 60 mg/g creatinine). After zinc supplementation, a significant reduction was observed in albumin excretion, from 90 ± 60 mg/g to 85 ± 57 mg/g creatinine (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Zinc supplementation reduced albumin excretion in microalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients. This outcome may be due to the antioxidant effect of zinc.

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Rev Diabet Stud, 2008, 5(2):110-115 DOI 10.1900/RDS.2008.5.110

Assessment of Dietary Practice Among Diabetic Patients in the United Arab Emirates

Juma Al-Kaabi1, Fatma Al-Maskari2, Hussein Saadi1, Bachar Afandi3, Hasratali Parkar3, Nicolaas Nagelkerke2

1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates
2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates
3JHMI-Tawam Hospital, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates
Address correspondence to: Fatma Al-Maskari, e-mail: fatma.am@uaeu.ac.ae


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess dietary practices and risk profile (hypertension, obesity, lipid profile and glycemic control) among people with diabetes in Al-Ain District, United Arab Emirates (UAE). METHODS: During 2006, we performed a cross-sectional study of diabetic patients attending diabetic outpatient clinics at Tawam Hospital and primary health care centers in Al-Ain District. Subjects completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire, blood pressure, body mass index, percentage body fat and abdominal circumference were measured and recorded and the most recent HbA1c levels and fasting lipid profile were identified. RESULTS: A sample of 409 diabetic patients was recruited, 50% of whom were illiterate. Only 24% read food labeling. 76% reported being unable to distinguish clearly between low and high carbohydrate index food items and no one reported counting calorie intake. 46% reported that they had never been seen by dietician since their diagnosis. Their overall risk profile, notably body weight, lipid profile and blood pressure, was very unfavorable; more than half of the study sample had uncontrolled hypertension and uncontrolled lipid profile and the majority was overweight (36%) or obese (45%). Abdominal obesity was particularly common (59%). Only 31% had an HbA1c of less than 7%. CONCLUSIONS: The dietary practices of diabetic patients in the UAE are inadequate and need improvement.

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