Original Data

Rev Diabet Stud, 2021, 17(1):11-16 DOI 10.1900/RDS.2021.17.11

The Impact of Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) on Lower Limb Kinematics in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Claire Saliba Thorne, Erica Bartolo, Alfred Gatt, Cynthia Formosa

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Malta
Address correspondence to: Claire Saliba Thorne, e-mail: claire.saliba-thorne.08@um.edu.mt


BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) and diabetes mellitus are factors known to influence gait characteristics. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the extent to which type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and PAD as comorbidities cause limb and gait complications. AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of PAD as a complication of T2D on ankle joint dorsiflexion and knee joint flexion angles using an optoelectronic motion analysis system and to find out whether these alterations are complications secondary to neuropathy or reduced blood perfusion. METHODS: Ninety participants were recruited in this quantitative study which applied a prospective, comparative, non-experimental approach. Participants with T2D and PAD (n = 60), categorized according to the severity of PAD (mild and severe group), were compared with a control group consisting of patients with T2D alone. An optoelectronic motion capture system was used to record mean maximum flexion angles of the knee joint and maximum mean dorsiflexion angles of the ankle joint during gait. RESULTS: 180 limbs were analyzed. Both mild and severe PAD participants exhibited a significant increase in mean maximum ankle joint dorsiflexion angles (p = 0.001) and a significant decrease in mean maximum flexion of the knee joint compared with the control subjects (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that T2D and PAD alter ankle joint and knee joint kinematics. This research provides biomechanical understanding of limb and gait alterations in this specific patient population which may contribute to an improved understanding of gait alterations and clinical management. The findings suggest that the reduction in ankle joint dorsiflexion commonly attributed to glycosylation in diabetes may be secondary to neuropathy and not to reduced blood perfusion.

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Rev Diabet Stud, 2021, 17(1):21-29 DOI 10.1900/RDS.2021.17.21

Impact of KCNJ11 rs5219, UCP2 rs659366, and MTHFR rs1801133 Polymorphisms on Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study

Irina Alexandrovna Lapik1, Rajesh Ranjit2, Alexey Vladimirovich Galchenko1,3

1Department of Preventive and Rehabilitative Dietetics, Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety, Kashirskoe sh., 21, Moscow, Russian Federation, 115446
2Department of Oncology, Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, PeoplesĀ“ Friendship University of Russia, Miklukho-Maklay Street 6, Moscow, Russian Federation, 117198
3Department of Medical Elementology, PeoplesĀ“ Friendship University of Russia, Miklukho-Maklay Street 6, Moscow, Russian Federation, 117198
Address correspondence to: Alexey Vladimirovich Galchenko, e-mail: gav.jina@gmail.com


OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a multifactorial disease. Its occurrence and prognosis are affected by many genes, including KCNJ11, UCP2, and MTHFR. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of various variants of these genes and evaluate their contribution to the outcome of T2D. METHODS: 80 females with T2D and class I-II obesity in the age of 40-65 years old underwent a genetic study, a biochemical blood test, and indirect calorimetry. RESULTS: Carriers of C/T and T/T genotypes of the MTHFR gene had higher levels of cholesterol and triglycerides and lower levels of vitamin B6 and folate. The T/T genotype of the UCP2 gene was associated with higher levels of glycated hemoglobin, pre- and postprandial glycemia and lipid oxidation rate, lower carbohydrate oxidation, and lower serum vitamin C levels. CONCLUSIONS: Genotyping UCP2 and probably KCNJ11 may help to select the optimal antidiabetic therapy and improve disease prognosis, whereas the MTHFR gene may determine the need to monitor group B vitamin status and the risk of dyslipidemia.

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Rev Diabet Stud, 2021, 17(1):30-37 DOI 10.1900/RDS.2021.17.30

Vitamin D and Cathelicidin (LL-37) Status in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage

Marina N. Plataki1,2, Rodanthi Vamvoukaki2, George Samonis2, Charalampos Bikis2, Maria Gorgomiti3, John A. Papadakis2, Sofia Maraki3, Diamantis P. Kofteridis1,2

1Laboratory of Internal Medicine, Host Defense Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
2Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
3Department of Clinical Microbiology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Address correspondence to: Diamantis P Kofteridis, e-mail: kofterid@med.uoc.gr


OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is characterized by the dysregulation of innate immunity leading to higher rates of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, an important risk factor for severe infections. 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) may contribute, via the production of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin (LL-37), to epithelial host defense against S. aureus. This study evaluated whether 25(OH)D and LL-37 levels determine S. aureus nasal carriage. METHODS: Two consecutive nasal swabs were obtained from 118 T2D patients to determine S. aureus nasal carriage status. Serum levels of 25(OH)D and LL-37 were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Supplementation of vitamin D by a number of participants was taken into account and evaluated. RESULTS: Forty-two T2D patients (35.6%) were found to be colonized by S. aureus. Vitamin D deficiency was detected in sixty-nine patients (65.7%). Median value for LL-37 in T2D patients was 0.89 ng/ml (range 0.05-8.62 ng/ml). Circulating levels of LL-37 were higher in nasal carriers compared to non-carriers (1.25 ng/ml vs 0.72 ng/ml; p < 0.001). No difference was found in serum 25(OH)D levels between carriers and non-carriers. 25(OH)D and LL-37 serum levels correlated positively in non-carriers, while the relationship was inversed in the carrier group. Vitamin D supplementation was not associated with lower incidence of S. aureus nasal carriage (p = 0.706). CONCLUSIONS: T2D patients presented decreased serum levels of 25(OH)D and LL-37, indicating a potential impairment of innate immunity. Expression of LL-37 may be induced by S. aureus nasal carriage among people with diabetes. Vitamin D supplementation did not influence S. aureus nasal colonization in T2D patients.

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