Original Data

Rev Diabet Stud, 2009, 6(1):64-70 DOI 10.1900/RDS.2009.6.64

Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Serum Homocysteine in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Microalbuminuria

Esfandiar Heidarian, Massoud Amini, Mahmoud Parham, Ashraf Aminorroaya

Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
Address correspondence to: Massoud Amini, e-mail: m_amini@med.mui.ac.ir

Manuscript submitted March 31, 2009; resubmitted May 15, 2009; accepted May 18, 2009.

Keywords: diabetes, microalbuminuria, cardiovascular, homocysteine, zinc, vitamin B12, folate, trace element

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Elevated homocysteine levels are considered to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to find out if zinc supplementation improves homocysteine levels, which may exert vascular-protective effects in type 2 diabetes subjects with microalbuminuria. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover study, 50 type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria were subdivided into two groups and supplemented with 30 mg/d of zinc (group 1) or placebo (group 2) for three months with a four-week wash out period. Serum creatinine, vitamin B12, folate, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, lipid profiles, zinc, homocysteine levels and random urine albumin were measured before and after the first and second phase of the study in all participants. RESULTS: Mean serum zinc was significantly increased after zinc supplementation (from 76 ± 16 μg/dl to 93 ± 20 µg/dl; p < 0.05), while there was no change in the placebo group (75 ± 16 µg/dl to 75 ± 15 µg/dl). With zinc supplementation, homocysteine levels reduced significantly (from 13.71 ± 3.84 μmol/l to 11.79 ± 3.06 μmol/l; p < 0.05), which did not occur on placebo (from 12.59 ± 2.13 μmol/l to 13.36 ± 2.03 μmol/l). Simple regression was used to show a positive correlation between urine albumin excretion and serum homocysteine (r = 0.37, p = 0.023). Vitamin B12 and folate levels increased significantly in patients who received zinc in comparison to those who received placebo. A negative correlation was observed between homocysteine and vitamin B12 concentration (r = -0.36, p = 0.025). CONCLUSION: Zinc supplementation reduced serum homocysteine and increased vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria.

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