|Rev Diabet Stud,
Anti-Inflammatory Properties of C-Peptide
Jaime Haidet1, Vincenza Cifarelli2, Massimo Trucco2, Patrizia Luppi2
1Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes Mellitus, Department of Pediatrics, Children´s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
2Division of Immunogenetics, Department of Pediatrics, Children´s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Address correspondence to: Jaime Haidet, e-mail: email@example.com
Manuscript submitted October 12, 2009; resubmitted October 29, 2009; accepted November 8, 2009.
Keywords: type 1 diabetes, C-peptide, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, vascular smooth muscle cells, NF-κB
C-peptide, historically considered a biologically inactive peptide, has been shown to exert insulin-independent biological effects on a number of cells proving itself as a bioactive peptide with anti-inflammatory properties. Type 1 diabetic patients typically lack C-peptide, and are at increased risk of developing both micro- and macrovascular complications, which account for significant morbidity and mortality in this population. Inflammatory mechanisms play a pivotal role in vascular disease. Inflammation and hyperglycemia are major components in the development of vascular dysfunction in type 1 diabetes. The anti-inflammatory properties of C-peptide discovered to date are at the level of the vascular endothelium, and vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to a variety of insults. Additionally, C-peptide has shown anti-inflammatory properties in models of endotoxic shock and type 1 diabetes-associated encephalopathy. Given the anti-inflammatory properties of C-peptide, one may speculate dual hormone replacement therapy with both insulin and C-peptide in patients with type 1 diabetes may be warranted in the future to decrease morbidity and mortality in this population.
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