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Rev Diabet Stud, 2005, 2(4):208-215 DOI 10.1900/RDS.2005.2.208

The Relationship between Dietary Habits, Blood Glucose and Insulin Levels among People without Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes; The ATTICA Study

Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos1, Natalia Tzima1, Christos Pitsavos2, Christina Chrysohoou2, Emilia Papakonstantinou1, Antonis Zampelas1, Christodoulos Stefanadis2

1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, 46 Paleon Polemiston St., 166 74 Attica, Athens, Greece.
2First Cardiology Clinic, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
Address correspondence to: Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos, e-mail: d.b.panagiotakos@usa.net.

Keywords: insulin, glycemic control, metabolic syndrome, diet


BACKGROUND: Diet has long been associated with a risk of insulin resistance and poor glycemic control. We sought to investigate the association between food groups and indices of glycemic control in adults without type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: During 2001 - 2002 we randomly enrolled 1514 men (18-87 years old) and 1528 women (18-89 years old) without evidence of cardiovascular disease from the Attica area of Greece. Of them, 118 men and 92 women were excluded from the present analysis due to a history of diabetes mellitus (type 2). Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were measured, while dietary habits were evaluated through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: Red meat consumption was positively associated with hyperglycemia (p = 0.04), hyperinsulinemia (p = 0.04), and HOMA levels (p = 0.03), even after adjusting for BMI and various other potential confounders. The intake of fruits, vegetables, legumes, yogurt and other dairy products was not associated with levels of glycemic control indices. CONCLUSIONS: A higher consumption of red meat and its products may aggravate hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in non-diabetic people.

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