Review

Rev Diabet Stud, 2017, 14(2-3):260-268 DOI 10.1900/RDS.2017.14.260

The Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation in Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Patients: Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

Elina Gregoriou1, Ioannis Mamais2, Irene Tzanetakou3, Giagkos Lavranos4, Stavri Chrysostomou5

1Department of Life Sciences, European University Cyprus, Engomi, 1516 Nicosia-Cyprus
2Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
3Department of Life Sciences, European University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus, Engomi, 1516 Nicosia-Cyprus
4Department of Health Sciences, European University Cyprus, Engomi, 1516 Nicosia-Cyprus
5Department of Life Sciences, School of Science, European University Cyprus, Engomi, 1516 Nicosia-Cyprus
Address correspondence to: Stavri Chrysostomou, Department of Life Sciences, School of Science, European University Cyprus, Diogenis Str. 6, Engomi, P.O. Box 22006, 1516 Nicosia-Cyprus, e-mail: s.chrysostomou@euc.ac.cy

Manuscript submitted October 17, 2016; resubmitted May 22, 2017; accepted May 23, 2017.

Keywords: type 1 diabetes, new-onset diabetes, vitamin D, randomized control trial, insulin, HbA1c, pancreatic beta-cell, stimulated C-peptide, fasting C-peptide

Abstract

AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of vitamin D supplementation in patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D) assessed by insulin needs and changes in glycemic indices, as evidenced by randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: A total of 7 RCTs were retrieved from PubMed/Medline and EBSCO databases by MeSH term search, and were reviewed systematically. The RCTs included examined the effects of alphacalcidole (n = 2), cholecalciferol (n = 2), and calcitriol (n = 3) supplementation on changes in daily insulin dose (DID), fasting Cpeptide (FCP), stimulated C-peptide (SCP), and HbA1c. In total, 287 individuals, diagnosed with T1D within a period of 4 weeks to 1 year and aged between 5 to 38 years, were examined. RESULTS: Significant positive effects on DID, FCP, and SCP levels were observed after supplementation with alphacalcidole and cholecalciferol, whereas supplementation with calcitriol showed no effect. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation in the form of alphacalcidole and cholecalciferol appears to be beneficial in the treatment of T1D patients by attenuating the natural history of the disease.

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