Review

Rev Diabet Stud, 2016, 13(4):217-225 DOI 10.1900/RDS.2016.13.217

Blood Ketones: Measurement, Interpretation, Limitations, and Utility in the Management of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Ketan Dhatariya

Elsie Bertram Diabetes Centre, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Colney Lane, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UY, UK

Manuscript submitted July 8, 2016; resubmitted September 6, 2016; accepted September 25, 2016.

Keywords: diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, ketones, measurement, SGLT-2, glucose uptake

Abstract

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) remains a common medical emergency. Over the last few years, new national guidelines have changed the focus in managing the condition from being glucose-centered to ketone-centered. With the advent of advancing technology and the increasing use of hand-held, point-of-care ketone meters, greater emphasis is placed on making treatment decisions based on these readings. Furthermore, recent warnings about euglycemic DKA occurring in people with diabetes using sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors urge clinicians to inform their patients of this condition and possible testing options. This review describes the reasons for a change in treating DKA, and outlines the benefits and limitations of using ketone readings, in particular highlighting the difference between urine and capillary readings.

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