|Rev Diabet Stud,
Visceral Obesity and Hemostatic Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: The Effect of Gender and Metabolic Compensation
Elzbieta Kozek, Barbara Katra, Maciej Malecki, Jacek Sieradzki
Department of Metabolic Diseases, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, 15 Kopernika Street, 31-501 Krakow, Poland.
Address correspondence to: Elzbieta Kozek, e-mail: email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients are characterized by a very high risk of cardiovascular diseases. Among the factors that are responsible for this phenomenon are abdominal obesity and hemostatic abnormalities. AIM OF THE STUDY: To examine the association of the markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis with the parameters of abdominal obesity and metabolic compensation in T2DM patients. METHODS: 46 T2DM patients participated in the study: 24 men (mean age 61.1 ± 7.9 years) and 22 postmenopausal women (mean age 62.6 ± 8.7 years). In each patient the content and distribution of fatty tissue was measured by a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry method (DEXA). The central abdominal fat/gynoid hip fat (CAF/GF) ratio was calculated. The following hemostatic parameters were measured: fibrinogen (Fb), factor VII (fVII), antithrombin III (ATIII), C protein (pC), tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and alpha 2 antiplasmin (alpha2 AP). In addition, the biochemical indices of metabolic compensation were measured: HbA1c, glucose levels and lipids. RESULTS: Patients of both genders were divided according to median CAF/GF ratio. The activity of PAI-1 was significantly higher in women with CAF/GF ratio ≥ 0.88 as compared to those with CAF/GF < 0.88 (2.64 ± 1.28 vs. 1.61 ± 0.27 U/ml, p < 0.05). The activity of ATIII was significantly lower in men with CAF/GF ratio ≥ 1.17, as compared to those with CAF/GF < 1.17 (105.10 ± 10.02 vs. 113.42 ± 10.72 %, p < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between the CAF/GF ratio and the activity of PAI-1 in women (r = 0.30, p < 0.05). In addition, in men the CAF/GF ratio was negatively correlated with ATIII activity (r = -0.44, p < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analysis demonstrated independent association between the CAF/ GF ratio and the activity of PAI-1 (p < 0.001), and between the CAF/GF ratio and the activity of alpha2 AP (p < 0.01). There was an independent association between the concentration of HbA1c and the concentration of Fb (p < 0.001) and between triglycerides and the activity of fVII (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study show that the patients with T2DM and with higher markers of abdominal obesity measured by DEXA show fibrinolysis impairment and thrombinogenesis elevation compared to those with lower abdominal obesity markers. Independent factors determining hypercoagulation also include metabolic control and lipids. Hemostatic disorders place subjects with diabetes and abdominal obesity at risk of developing vascular complications.
|Rev Diabet Stud,
Tailored Immunosuppression and Steroid Withdrawal in Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation
Maura Rossetti, Giorgina B. Piccoli, Manuel Burdese, Cesare Guarena, Roberta Giraudi, Elisabetta Mezza, Valentina Consiglio, Giorgio Soragna, Maria Messina, Giuseppe P. Segoloni
Chair of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Turin, Corso Bramante 86-88, 10126 Torino, Italy.
Address correspondence to: Giorgina B. Piccoli, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Recent improvements in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK) and the striking decrease in acute rejection lead us to focus on the effects of long-term immunosuppression. AIM OF THIS STUDY: Evaluation of a policy of steroid withdrawal and tailored immunosuppression in pancreas-kidney patients treated in a single center. METHODS: review of the clinical charts in 9 SPK recipients (male/female = 5/4, median age 41 years, median follow-up 42 months), by the same operator, under supervision of the two usual caregivers. Therapeutic protocols. Induction phase: all patients received mycophenolate mophetil (starting dose: 2 grams), tacrolimus and steroids, 8 received Simulect, 1 received thymoglobulins. Maintenance therapy was slowly reduced, with the goal of steroid withdrawal. RESULTS: The therapeutic adjustments were mainly determined by two almost opposing elements: 1. Rapid adjustments in the case of side-effects (gastrointestinal problems, infections and neoplasia); 2. Slow tapering off in the case of good organ function. On the other hand, a switch to cyclosporine A and to rapamycine was considered in the case of chronic organ malfunction. By these means, over a median of 42 months follow-up, steroid withdrawal was slowly obtained in 6/9 patients (at a median time of 25 months). CONCLUSIONS: Within the limits of this small-scale study, a tailored immunosuppressive policy allows at least some "positively selected" patients to reach the "dream" of steroid withdrawal after SPK.